DECLARED PLANTS FOUND IN THE MOGGILL CREEK CATCHMENT - MARCH 2018

This table includes photographs of listed species where available.  Photographs were taken by Bryan Hacker unless otherwise indicated, mostly in or near the Moggill Creek Catchment.  Brief comments are provided on distinguishing characteristics, published control methods, and status and rating.

The table has 5 categories:
1. Trees
2. Shrubs
3. Vines
4. Herbaceous and understorey plants
5. Aquatic and semi-aquatic plants   

Control
Control information has been derived from the following sources which can be referenced for further information:

National, State and Council status
The species included are those recorded for our Catchment which also appear in BCC's Brisbane Invasive Species Management Plan 2013-17 pp 25-34. National and State status (see Restricted Invasive Plants of Queensland publ. 2016) are also included.

Key to status and rating:
- WONS:  Weeds of National Significance List (National - AUS) 
- NEAL: National Environmental Alert List (National - AUS) 
- C3:  A person must not distribute the invasive plant either by sale or gift, or release it into the environment (State - QLD) 
- Eradicate:   Priority for early detection and eradication (Brisbane City Council - BNE)
- Contain:   Priority for containment and reduction (Brisbane City Council - BNE)
- Reduce:  Reduce population as part of routine maintenance (Brisbane City Council - BNE)
- Rating:   This is a subjective rating of environmental threat or damage on a 1-5 scale, ***** indicating most serious environmental weed 
 
 
1. TREES (including PALMS)


 Species
 
Detailed view  Scientific and common name  Distinguishing characteristics  Control Status and Rating  Additional local notes



 

Celtis sinensis 
Chinese celtis
Deciduous; leaves simple, in a plane, slightly toothed margins
Cut-stump and glyphosate; stem injection; various other herbicides

For more info please see:

AUS:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *****
 

Mainly around creeks.  Seedling regeneration a major concern, requiring hand removal or cut-stump treatment.  


A major food source for fruit-eating birds including Pale-headed Rosellas. Replace (lower bank) Ficus coronata and (upper bank) local riparian rainforest species. 


Replacement species:  (lower bank) Ficus coronata and (upper bank) local riparian rainforest species.

 



 

Cinnamomum camphora 
Camphor Laurel
Leaves simple, with under surface lighter; smell of camphor when  crushed
Cut-stump and glyphosate; stem  injection; various other herbicides

For more info please see: 

AUS:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ***** 

Mainly around creeks. 

Important food source for fruit-eating birds and host for Blue Triangle butterfly.  


Replacement species: Cryptocarya triplivervis (for Blue Triangle butterfly), Syzygium spp. (upper bank, fruit-eating birds), Melaleuca bracteata and other riparian rainforest species.

 

 


 


Corymbia torelliana
Cadaga or cadaghi
Pronounced sock; young leaves red, hairy   Cut-stump and herbicide; stem injection

For more info please see: BCC weed identification

 
AUS:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 

Attracts honeyeaters, lorikeets and bees.


Replacement species: Corymbia tesselaris, C. citriodora or local species of Eucalyptus. 

 
 


 




Koelreuteria elegans ssp. formosana
Golden rain tree 
Bipinnate leaves; leaflets alternate, not  opposite as in white cedar   Cut-stump and glyphosate; stem injection

For more info please see: 

 
AUS:    nil
QLD:    NEAL
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 

A prolific seeder, spread by birds.   

Replacement species: Cupaniopsis parvifolia or Melia azederach.

 
 




Ligustrum lucidum
Broadleaf privet 
Leaves opposite, 4-13 cm long  Cut-stump and glyphosate; stem injection; various other herbicides

For more info please see: 

AUS:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:   Contain
Rating: ** 
A significant weed tree in the Moggill Creek catchment.  Produces large numbers of seeds, which are dispersed by birds. 

Replacement species: Jagera pseudo-rhus or Mallotus philippensis.
 
 


  Ligustrum sinense
Small-leaved privet 
Leaves opposite, 2-7 cm long  Cut-stump and glyphosate; stem injection; various other herbicides

For more info please see: 

AUS:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:  Contain
Rating:
Less common in the Moggill Creek Catchment than L. lucidum.  Seeds spread by birds.  Tends to occur close to streams.

Replacement species: riparian rainforest species.
 
 

 


Morus alba
White mulberry 
Leaves simple, to 11cm x 8cm, bright green  Cut-stump or basal bark and herbicide

For more info please see: BCC weed identification
 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
Common along waterways and difficult to kill.

Replacement species: riparian rainforest species
 
 


  Pinus elliottii
Slash pine  
Tree with needle-like, jointed branchlets, appearing like leaves  Cut and remove before seeding

For more info please see: BCC weed identification
 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: * 
Seeds spread by wind. 

Suggested replacements: Araucaria cunninghamii or Podocarpus elatus.
 

 

 
Schefflera actinophylla
Umbrella tree 
Leaves on long stalks (petioles) with 7-16 leaflets to 25cm long  Cut-stump and herbicide; stem injection

For more info please see: BCC weed identification
 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
Flowers or fruit are enjoyed by lorikeets. Seed spread by birds and other animals. 
 


 

Schinus terebinthifolius
Broad-leaved pepper tree
Leaves distinctive, leaflets 5-11, in  pairs with one terminal leaflet  Cut-stump and glyphosate; stem injection. Also fluoxypyr

For more info please see: 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
Generally occurs along waterways and tolerant of somewhat saline soils.  Spread by seed-eating birds and mammals. 

Replacement species: appropriate local riparian species.
 
 

  Spathodea campanulata
African tulip tree 
Leaves opposite, to 50cm long, each with 7-17 leaflets  Cut-stump and herbicide; stem injection

For more info please see: 


AUD:    nil
QLD:    NEAL
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:**** 
Seeds winged and wind-blown.  May sucker from damaged roots. 

Suggested replacements: Harpullia pendula or Brachychiton discolor.
 


  Syagrus romanzoffiana
Cocos palm or Queen palm 
Palm with fruit 2-3cm long, yellow-orange, borne in large clusters  Cut below lowest leaf or at ground level – herbicide not necessary

For more info please see: 


AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: * 
Fruit toxic to flying foxes. 

Replacement species: Planting native palms would be preferred, although none known to be native to the Moggill Creek catchment.

 
 

Tipuana tipu
Tipuana
Leaves alternate, with 9-29 leaflets, these in alternating pairs,
with one terminal leaflet; fruit winged

Cut-stump and glyphosate; stem injection; various herbicides

For more info please see: 

 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    NEAL
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: **** 
Fruit is winged (technically a samara) and wind-blown.

Suggested replacements: Jagera pseudo-rhus, Harpullia pendula or Brachychiton discolor.
 

2. SHRUBS (including cacti and bamboo)

 
Species


Detailed view

Scientific name

Distinguishing characteristics
 
Control

Status and Rating


Additional local notes 

 

  Agave spp
Agave
Century plant
 
Leaves 1-2m long f Basal bark or complete removal

For more info please see: 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
Several species.  Mature plants seed from a tall flowering stem. 

Suggested replacements: replace after removal with appropriate local trees and shrubs.
 
Images not currently available   Baccharis halimifolia
Groundsel bush  
Shrub to 3m tall with wedge-shaped leaves 2.5-5cm long, 1-1.5cm wide  Hand-pull; cut stump then foliar spray – glyphosate or various other herbicides

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Contain
Rating:
Now not common in the Moggill Creek catchment.  Seeds carried by wind. 

Suggested replacements: appropriate local shrubs – Dodonaea spp., Hovea acutifolia, Trema aspera.
 
 

 

Cascabela thevetia
Yellow oleander
Captain Cook bush

 
Milky sap; flowers yellow and bell-shaped, to 5cm diameter 

Cut-stump and glyphosate; stem injection; various other herbicides

For more info please see: 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: **  
All parts of plant very poisonous.  Seed reportedly spread in garden waste. 

Suggested replacements: Acacia spp., Mallotus philippensis, Harpullia pendula.
 
 

 

Cestrum parqui
Green cestrum   
Shrub to 3m, leaves to 12cm long, 2.5cm wide, unpleasant smell when crushed  Cut stump or spot spray – glyphosate or various other herbicides

For more info please see: 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
Toxic.  Seed spread by birds. Not common in the Moggill Creek catchment. 
 

© Malcolm Frost




Dichrostachys cinerea
Sickle bush 
Strong alternate thorns to 8cm long  Cut-stump and glyphosate

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
Occurs in the vicinity of Rafting Ground Park. 
 



 
Flowers


Fruit

Duranta erecta syn, D. repens and D. plumeri
Duranta  
Shrub with light blue flowers and orange berries  Cut stump, basal bark or spot spray; various herbicides

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
Seed dispersed by birds.  Commonly grown in local gardens. 
 

 




Lantana camara
Lantana
Shrub  Hand-pull when small; cut stump, basal bark or spot spray; various herbicides

For more info please see: 


AUD:    WONS
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:***** 
Several varieties with different-coloured flowers.

Provides good habitat for small birds and should be replaced progressively, avoiding leaving bare ground.

Suggested replacements: Trema tomentosa, Dodonaea spp., Bursaria spinosa, Hovea acutifolia
 
 


 
Leucaena leucocephala (all ssp.)
Leucaena
 
Leaves bipinnate, leaflets to 20 mm long  Cut-stump and picloram

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
Seeds prolifically, bearing large numbers of seed pods, the seeds reportedly carried by small animals.  Seeds should be collected and destroyed as longevity of 7-20 years has been reported. 
Images not currently available     Ludwigia longifolia 
Ludwigia
 
Herbaceous annual shrub to 3m tall  Hand-pull, foliar spray

For more info please see: BCC weed identification
 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *  
Distinguished from other local Ludwigia spp. in being an erect hairless annual with alternate leaves 10-20cm long, the fruit prominently 4 angled. 



  Nerium oleander
Oleander 
Well-known shrub, rarely invasive  Cut stump or basal bark

For more info please see: BCC weed identification
 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
Highly toxic.

Suggested garden replacements: Hymenosporum flavum and Hibiscus heterophyllus.
 


Seedling





Ochna serrulata
Ochna 
Shrub to 2m, narrow shiny leaves, with finely toothed wavy margins  Cut stump or basal bark; various herbicides

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Contain
Rating: **** 
A major threat to sclerophyll woodlands in the Moggill Creek catchment.  Difficult to control and several passes are usually necessary.

Good habitat for some birds, notably Whip Birds.  

Suggested replacements: Trema tomentosa, Dodonaea spp., Bursaria spinosa, Hovea acutifolia.  Seed distributed by birds but loses viability within 12 months.
 
 


  Opuntia stricta
Spiny pest pear
Prickly pear
 
 
Broad and flattened spiny stems  Hand-pull when small (don’t leave on ground or it will re-grow); basal bark/cut stump; foliar spray; various herbicides

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    WONS
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
Uncommon in the Moggill Creek catchment. 
 

Phyllostachys aurea
 


Phyllostachys aurea and P. nigra
Golden Bamboo
Black Bamboo

 
Loosely clumping, stems to 7m  Cut stump and glyphosate; complete removal

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
Purposefully planted on a number of properties.  Flowering is very rare and plants form dense clumps through producing underground rhizomes. 
 

 



Fruit
Psidium guajava
Yellow guava 
Opposite leaves to 15cm long  Cut-stump and herbicide; stem injection

For more info please see: BCC weed identification  
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
Introduced as a fruit tree but now widely regarded as a weed.  Seeds distributed by fruit-eating birds and flying foxes.

Suggested replacements: Harpullia pendula, Jagera pseudorhus.  
   

Raphiolepis indica
Common Indian hawthorn  
Shrub with clusters of pinkish flowers c. 12 mm across  Cut stump, then foliar spray or basal bark

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
Not common in the district. 

Seed distributed by seed-eating birds. 

Suggested replacements: Trema tomentosa, Dodonaea spp., Bursaria spinosa, Hovea acutifolia.
 
   




Ricinus communis
Castor oil plant 
Palmate leaves to 60cm across, hollow stems  Hand-pull seedlings; control before seeding; glyphosate, 2,4D or triclopyr

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
Mainly found along waterways.  When ripe, fruit explodes, throwing the seed several meters.  Leaves and seeds toxic. 

Suggested replacement for flood-prone areas: Lomandra hystrix; Casuarina cunninghamiana
 

 

 




Senna pendula var. glabrata
Easter cassia 
Leaves with 3-5 pairs of leaflets, no terminal leaflet; leaflet margins pallid; pods c. 6mm diameter  Hand-pull young plants; collect any ripe seed for disposal; cut stump and glyphosate or fluroxypyr

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
Previously listed as Cassia coluteoides.  Flowers spring and autumn (Easter). 

Suggested replacements: Senna sophera and Senna acclinis for Common Migrant and Lemon Migrant butterflies
 
 

 


Senna septemtrionalis
Arsenic bush 
Leaves with 3-5 pairs of leaflets, no terminal leaflet; leaflets acutely pointed  Hand-pull young plants; collect any ripe seed for disposal; cut stump

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
Previously listed as Cassia floribunda.  No direct evidence of toxicity.  Flowers Autumn. 

Suggested replacements: Senna sophera and Senna acclinis for Common Migrant and Lemon Migrant butterflies.

   




Solanum mauritianum
Wild tobacco tree
Shrub to 4m, leaves to 30cm, densely covered with felty hairs  Cut stump or basal bark; various herbicides

For more info please see: 


AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
Seeds spread by seed-eating birds. Poisonous to stock; flowers Autumn to Spring.  
 

 


Solanum torvum
Devil's fig 
Stem with broad-based spines; leaves large with about 7 broad lobes  Cut stump or basal bark

For more info please see: BCC weed identification

AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
Flowers mainly in Spring. 

Seed spread by fruit-eating birds.
 


 
 




Tecoma stans 
Yellow bells
Shrub with 3-13 hairless leaflets; flowers yellow  Hand-pull young plants; collect seed for disposal; cut stump and glyphosate

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
Seed is wind-dispersed. 
 
3. VINES

 
Species

 Detailed view

Scientific name 

Distinguishing characteristics 
 
Control

Status and Rating

 

Additional local notes 

 



 


Anredera cordifolia
Madiera vine  
Fleshy-leaved vine, tubers in leaf axils  Cut stump and/or scrape stem and  herbicide, hand weed with care, remove all material.  Cut stems continue to survive in the canopy so stem scraping often preferred.  Several herbicides listed.

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    WONS
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:***** 
Very invasive – a priority for removal where it occurs. 

Propagates through tubers formed in leaf axils. 

Very rarely reported to produce seed. 

Cut stems continue to survive in the canopy so stem scraping often preferred.
 





Araujia sericifera and A. hortorum
White moth plant 
Leaves triangular, opposite; sap milky Spot spray, fluoxypyr

For more info please see: 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Contain
Rating: ** 
Less frequently noted in the Moggill Creek catchment than other exotic vines. 









Aristolochia elegans
Dutchman's pipe  
Vine with broad, rather heart-shaped leaves  Hand-pull; cut stump or basal bark and  herbicide

For more info please see: BCC weed identification
 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Contain
Rating: *** 
Toxic to larvae of the Richmond Birdwing butterfly. 

Leaves are similar to those of the native Stephania japonica (tape vine).
 
 


 

Asparagus africanus
Climbing asparagus 
Climbing prickly stems  Dig out; several herbicides recommended.

For more info please see: 

  
AUD:    WONS
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Contain
Rating:***** 
Reproduces by seed, which is spread by birds and probably by other animals. 

If digging out, remove entire crown or hook into a low fork of a tree to prevent re-establishment. 
 

 






Caesalpinia decapetala
Wait-a-while
Mysore thorn
 
Stems and leaves prickly, leaves bipinnate, leaflets 1-2 cm long, in pairs  Remove seedlings by hand; metsulfuron-methyl only registered herbicide

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
Found along riparian areas.  Stems and leaves prickly.  Local (uncommon) native C. scortechinii has pods 3-5cm long, cf. 6-10cm long in C. decapetala. 
 

 

Cardiospermum grandiflorum
Balloon vine 
Leaves distinct, with lobed leaflets; stems hairy  Hand-pull; cut stump and  herbicide; several herbicides listed

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: **** 
A major weed of riparian areas.  Fruit and seed mostly wind-dispersed. 

Leaves somewhat similar to those of the common native vine Cayratia clematidea (slender grape).
 

 


Desmodium uncinatum
Silver leaf, Desmodium or Velcro plant 
Leaves with 3 leaflets, pale towards mid-rib; leaves and stems sticky owing to hooked hairs
 
Hand-pull; dig out tap root

For more info please see: BCC weed identification
 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
Readily distinguished by its ‘sticky’ leaves, stems and pods. Fruit dispersed by passing animals. 

Suggested replacements: locally native understorey plants.
 
 



© Adrian Webb


 





Tubers

Dolichandra unguis-cati
Cats claw creeper  
Leaves opposite, each with 2 leaflets and 3 tiny ‘claws’ between  Foliar spray / cut stump with dicamba, picloram or glyphosate (dicamba more effective).

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    WONS
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Contain
Rating:***** 
A major threat to forest ecosystems in the Moggill Creek catchment. 

Landowners encouraged to control young plants before they take over and to prevent flowering or established colonies by cutting and poisoning ascending stems.
 
 

 


Ipomoea cairica
Mile a minute 
Twining vine, the alternate leaves with 5 or 7 prominent lobes  Hand pull, cut stump or stem scrape plus herbicide, several listed

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: **** 
Widespread in the Moggill Creek catchment along riparian areas. 

Mostly spreads vegetatively.
 
   

Ipomoea indica
Morning glory 
Twining vine, the alternate leaves broadly heart-shaped, sometimes with 3 or 5 lobes  Hand pull, cut stump or stem scrape plus herbicide – several listed

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: **** 
Reproduces vegetatively.  Leaves quite similar to those of the locally common native Ipomoea plebeia (bellvine), which has white flowers c. 1cm long (cf. blue flowers 5-8cm long in I. indica). 
Images not currently available    Lonicera japonica
Japanese honeysuckle 
Vine with leaves to 75mm long in opposite pairs  Cut stump or foliar spray;  glyphosate or picloram

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: * 
Not a major weed in the Moggill Creek catchment. 
   




Macroptilium atropurpureum
Siratro 
Leaves with 3 leaflets up to 7 cm long, lower leaflets with pronounced lobe  Hand pull; foliar spray several herbicides listed

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
Replace with locally native grasses and other understorey plants.  Seed likely to remain viable in soil for several years. 
 

 




Macrotyloma axillare
Perennial horse gram 
Vine with yellow pea flowers in leaf axils  Cut stump then foliar spray

For more info please see: BCC weed identification
 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
Seed likely to remain viable in soil for several years.

Suggested replacements: locally native grasses and other understorey plants.
 


 




Neonotonia wightii 
Glycine
Vine, leaves with 3 leaflets to 15 cm long, 12cm broad  Hand-pull, cut stump and  glyphosate; spot spray with dicamba or picloram + triclpyr

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:***** 
A major threat, primarily along riparian areas in the Moggill Creek catchment.  Note that several native species of the genus Glycine occur in the Moggill Creek catchment. 

Leaves are much smaller than those of N. wightii and they are not weedy. 

Seeds may remain viable in soil for ten or more years.
 
   



Fruit

Passiflora suberosa 
Corky passion vine
Climber with corky bark towards base of stem  Hand pull or cut stump and foliar spray with gluphosate 

For more info please see:


AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
Flowers 1-2cm diameter, cf >6cm diameter in local natives P. herbertiana and P. aurantia. 

Also 2 glands halfway along petiole (cf. glands just below blade in natives)
 
 

Seedling
 





 ©  Val Price

Solanum seaforthianum
Brazilian nightshade 
Vine with alternate leaves partly or completely divided to midrib with 3-9 lobes; flowers lavender-coloured  Hand-pull or cut stump and  herbicide

For more info please see: BCC weed identification
 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
Seed spread by fruit-eating birds.  Seedlings are frequently found in the Moggill Creek Catchment, suggesting that this species is an increasing threat. 
   


Syngonium spp. 
Arrowhead vine
Vine  Stem scrape or cut stump and foliar spray glyphosate or fluroxypyr

For more info please see:

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: * 
Propagates largely vegetatively and generally found in more settled areas of the Moggill Creek catchment. 

 
 


Thunbergia alata 
Black-eyed Susan
Slender-stemmed vine with bright orange flowers with black throat  Hand pull, foliar spray

For more info please see: BCC weed identification
 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *
Reproduces vegetatively and by seed. 

Suggested replacements: locally native understorey plants.
 

4. HERBACEOUS AND UNDERSTOREY PLANTS
 

Species

Detailed view 

Scientific name 

Distinguishing characteristics 
 
Control

Status and Rating

 

Additional local notes 
    


Ageratina riparia 
Mistflower
Sprawling plant; opposite leaves with serrated margins; occurs close to streams  Hand pull before seeding; several herbicides listed

For more info please see: 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
A significant threat along waterways, tolerating quite heavy shade. 

Suggested replacements: locally native understorey plants including Lomandra hystrix.
 



  Alternanthera pungens
Khaki weed 
Creeping, somewhat hairy stems  Foliar spray; several herbicides listed

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: * 
A weed of disturbed areas.  Reproduces mainly by seed. 

Suggested replacements: locally native herbaceous and understorey plants.
 


 

Ambrosia artemisiifolia 
Annual ragweed
Leaves to 10cm long and deeply divided; pollen may cause health problems  Hand pull before seeding; several herbicides listed

For more info please see: 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
Can cause allergic reactions.  Seeds prolifically in autumn. 

Removal before seeding effective in terms of long-term control.
 



 

Argemone ochroleuca  
Prickly poppy or Mexican poppy

Prickly herb to 1m tall; flowers pale yellow to 7cm diameter  Hand pull before seeding; several herbicides listed

For more info please see: 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
 
 




  Arundo donax
Giant reed
Rhizomatous perennial grass to 6m tall, with large, open flower heads  Cut stump followed by aquatic-approved herbicide recommended by Florabase (WA)

For more info please see: 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: **** 
Mainly along waterways, including lower Moggill Creek. 

Clumps propagate vegetatively and reproduction also by seed. 

Like Pennisetum purpureum, this species is also likely to provide wildlife habitat that is difficult to replace.
 
 

 


Asclepias curassavica
Red-head cotton bush 
Erect perennial herb to 1m tall; milky sap; flowers yellowish to orange  Hand pull or dig out; foliar spray

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
Uncommon in the Moggill Creek catchment.

Reproduces by seed.
 
 

Asparagus aethiopicus

 

Asparagus aethiopicus

Asparagus aethiopicus ‘Sprengeri’
Ground asparagus 
Long, arching prickly stems from a central point  Dig out; several herbicides recommended

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    WONS
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Contain
Rating:*** 
Reproduces by seed, which is spread by birds and probably by other animals.

If digging out, remove entire crown or hook into a low fork of a tree to prevent re-establishment.
 


Bryophyllum  daigremontianum x B. tubiflorum

  Bryophyllum x houghtonii 
Mother of millions
Erect stems with fleshy leaves producing tiny propagules along margins  Hand pull taking care to bag entire plants for safe disposal; several herbicides listed

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:***** 
Toxic to livestock. Several forms, including the similar Bryophyllum delagoense, occur in the Moggill Creek catchment.

Difficult to eliminate.
 



  Bryophyllum pinnatum
Live plant
Resurrection plant
 
Erect, to 1m tall; leaves succulent, upper leaves with 3-5 leaflets    Hand pull taking care to bag entire plants for safe disposal

For more info please see:
 BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
Toxic to livestock 
 


  Callisia fragrans
Purple succulent 
Prostrate herbaceous plant spreading by means of long stolons. Leaves may be green or purple.
Hand pull, removing all of the plant. Putting in a heap and covering with black plastic for several months is effective. 

For more info please see: BCC weed identification
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
 
 


 

Chloris gayana 
Rhodes grass
Stoloniferous grass with 8-17 spikes at tip of flowering stem.  The native C. ventricosa is similar but <9 spikes and narrower leaves (3mm cf 2-9mm)  Dig out by hand or foliar spray 

For more info please see:
 BCC weed identification
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
An important pasture species.

Suggested replacements: In bushland, control before seeding and replace with locally native grasses and understorey plants.
 
 


  Chloris virgata
Feathertop, Rhodes grass  
A tufted grass to c. 1m with distinctive flower heads

  
Hand pull before seeding

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
A minor weed but quite common along roadsides. 
 



 


Dyschoriste depressa
Dyschoriste 
Opposite leaves; flowers in leaf axils; extremely invasive  Foliar spray, selective herbicide 

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Contain
Rating:***** 
A major weed along waterways also tolerant of full sun and mowing in a lawn situation.

Reproduces vegetatively and by seed.
 
Images not currently available
  Impatiens spp.
Balsam
(Busy Lizzie)
 
Herb, mostly annual  Hand pull before flowering

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *
 
Uncommon in the Moggill Creek catchment. 
 



 


Lantana montevidensis 
Creeping lantana
Herbaceous plant with creeping stems, rooting at intervals, forming dense mats  Foliar spray, several herbicides listed

For more info please see: 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: **** 
A serious threat to the understorey in eucalypt woodlands. 
 






Megathyrsus maximus
Guinea grass,
Green panic
 
Several cultivars established, mostly tufted, but cv. Embu is stoloniferous (see photos) Dig out or hand pull for small infestations before seeding; foliar spray

For more info please see: BCC weed identification

AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:***** 
An important pasture species. All cultivars have large flower heads with branches at base in whorls – distinguishing them from less robust local native species of Panicum

Embu reproduces vegetatively (associated with creek floods).
 
 

  Melinis minutiflora
Molasses grass 
Invasive grass with distinctive aroma; purplish flower heads in late Autumn  Dig out or hand pull for small infestations; spot-spray with glyphosate

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: **** 
A major understorey threat in eucalypt woodlands in the Moggill Creek catchment.

Suggested replacements: Replace progressively with local native grasses and understorey species.
 
 


  Nephrolepis cordifolia
Fishbone fern 
Readily identifiable fern  May be controlled by hand-pulling in small areas

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
A local native sometimes regarded as a weed.

Suggested replacements: native grasses. 

 


Paspalum notatum
Bahia grass 

Perennial stoloniferous grass; flower heads to 75cm, with two terminal racemes (branches) 

Common lawn weed 

Dig out or foliar spray

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
A common lawn weed but not common in environmental areas.

Reproduces by seed.
 



 

Pennisetum purpureum 
Elephant grass 
Tufted grass growing to a height of 4m; cylindrical flower heads to 30cm long in Autumn Dig out or foliar spray 

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:***** 

Local infestations believed to be a sterile hybrid known as Bana Grass

Suggested replacements: Replace progressively with Lomandra hystrix 
 




Rivina humilis
Coral berry 
Well-branched shrub to c. 1m, flowers when young, producing red berries

Easily pulled out by hand
 
Hand pull before seeding (collect fruit for disposal); fluoxypyr or glyphosate

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
A very shade tolerant species spreading rapidly.

Suggested replacements: locally native understorey plants.
 
 


 

Ruellia tweediana 
Ruellia
Rhizomatous perennial in riparian areas to c. 1m tall, with narrow opposite leaves and purple flowers to c. 6cm diameter  Difficult to control

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
A significant threat along waterways. 

On a small scale cut stump method taking care to protect native Persicaria spp. can be effective.
 



  Sansevieria trifasciata
Mother-in-law's tongue 
Rhizomatous perennial with erect leaves to c. 1m long  Dig out and remove entire plant including leaves

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
A weed of dry areas; probably spread by disposal of garden rubbish. 

Don’t leave excised leaves on ground as they can sprout plantlets along the margins.
 
Images not currently available    Schizachyrium microstachyum
Little bluestem 
Grass  Foliar spray

For more info please see: BCC weed identification
 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Special
     Investigation
            List
Rating:

Uncommon 


  Senecio madagascariensis
Fireweed 
Yellow-flowered annual or short-lived perennial daisy, each flower head with about 12 petals  Dig out isolated plants before seeding; foliar spray, several selective herbicides recommended

For more info please see: 

AUD:    WONS
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
A quick-growing plant which seeds prolifically.

Toxic to livestock.
 


  Setaria sphacelata
South African pigeon grass 
Perennial grass to 180cm tall; flower heads cylindrical, with c. 1mm bristles  Dig out isolated plants before seeding

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
A pasture species not usually frequent in bushland. 

Suggested replacements: Replace with locally native grasses and understorey shrubs.
 
Images not currently available
  Solanum nigrum
Blackberry nightshade
 
Shrub to 1.25m; star-shaped flowers

Fruit purple-black when ripe
 
Dig out; foliar spray – dicamba or fluroxypyr 

For more info please see: 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
Can be toxic.

Suggested replacements: Replace with locally native understorey shrubs.
 
 


 


Sphagneticola trilobata
Singapore daisy 
Rhizomatous perennial, glossy leaves, yellow daisy flowers  Foliar spray, metsulfuron methyl

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: **** 
A major weed along riparian areas and difficult to control.  Mainly reproduces vegetatively. 
   


Sporobolus pyramidalis

Giant rats tail grass

Narrow leaved tussock grass, pyramidal flower head  Spot spray, glyphosate or flupropanate

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *** 
Not palatable to livestock. Several Sporobolus species occur in the Moggill Creek catchment, mostly exotic.

Suggested replacements: in bushland areas replace with locally native grasses.
 


 
  Tagetes minuta 
Stinking roger
Annual with erect stems and deeply divided leaves  Hand pull or foliar spray

For more info please see: BCC weed identification
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: *
 
A minor annual roadside weed in the Moggill Creek catchment. 
   


Tithonia diversifolia
Japanese sunflower 
Erect stems to 3m tall; yellow daisy-like flowers to 10cm wide; leaves with 3-7 pointed lobes  Foliar spray – several selective herbicides listed

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
Generally occurs in sunny situations. 

Suggested replacements: replace with locally native shrubs and small trees.
 
   


Tradescantia fluminensis
Wandering Jew 
Trailing ground-cover plant with white flowers, 3 petals (easily confused when not in flower with the native Commelina cyanea)  Hand pull and collect for disposal (with care); spot spray fluroxypyr or treat with picloram

For more info please see: 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
Tolerant of heavy shade and difficult to control. 
 

  Tradescantia zebrina 
Zebrina
Trailing ground-cover plant with bi-coloured purple and grey-green leaves  Hand pull and collect for disposal (with care); spot spray with fluroxypyr

For more info please see: 


AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
Generally spreads vegetatively. 
   


Urochloa decumbens 
Signal grass
Grass with flower heads to 1.5m; flower heads with several branches tending to be on one side  Dig out isolated plants before seeding; foliar spray

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:***** 
A major weed species in eucalypt woodlands in the Moggill Creek catchment. 

Unpalatable to horses. 
 
 
5. AQUATIC AND SEMI-AQUATIC


 Species

Detailed view 

Scientific name 

Distinguishing characteristics
 
 
Control

Status and Rating


Additional local notes 
 


 

Egeria densa
Elodea
Dense water weed
 
  Remove completely

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Contain
Rating:  ** 
 
Images not currently available  
 
Eichhornia crassipes 
Water hyacinth
Floating water plant with purple flowers  Foliar spray – several herbicides listed

For more info please see: 

AUD:    WONS
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Contain
Rating: ** 
On a small scale, hand removal recommended. 

 
 

Gymnocoronis spilanthoides
Senegal tea 
Semi-aquatic plant rooting in ground with stems extending over water; leaves opposite; white pompom flowers  Herbicides listed for use in aquatic areas 

For more info please see: 


AUD:    NEAL
QLD:    C3
BNE: Eradicate
Rating:  *** 
Suggested replacements: Lomandra hystrix
 


 

Heteranthera reniformis
Kidney leaf mud plantain


Aquatic plant that can form dense mats 

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: * 
 
   

Hygrophila costata
Hygrophila 


Herbaceous, semi-aquatic; leaves in opposite pairs; flowers white, in leaf axils  Remove by hand; foliar spray glyphosate or metsulfuron-methyl

For more info please see: 

AUD:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE: Eradicate
Rating:  * 
Suggested replacements: Lomandra hystrix 
 


  Myriophyllum aquaticum
Parrot's feather 
Aquatic plant with stems creeping and rooting, also forming dense mats on water surface; leaves short, in whorls  Remove by hand

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
 
Images not currently available    Nymphaea caerulea ssp
zanzibarensis
 
Water lily
Blue-flowered water lily  Complete removal

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating:
 
Images not currently available     Pistia stratiotes 
Water lettuce 
Free floating aquatic  Remove by hand; several herbicides listed

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    nil
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Contain
Rating:
 


 
  Sagittaria platyphylla
Saggitaria 
Herbaceous, semi-aquatic; leaves oval, to 25cm long; flowers with 3 white petals  Spot spray with glyphosate

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:   WONS
QLD:   C3
BNE:   Eradicate
Rating: ** 
 


  Salvinia molesta
Salvinia 
Floating aquatic fern  Several herbicides listed

For more info please see: 

 
AUD:    WONS
QLD:    C3
BNE:    Contain
Rating: **** 
 



  Colocasia esculenta
Taro,
Black Stem Taro,
Black Stem Elephant's Ear 
Herbaceous, semi-aquatic plant with large leaves carried on long petioles  Cut stump or foliar spray - avoid spraying close to water

For more info please see: BCC weed identification 


AUD:    nil
QLD:    nil
BNE:    Reduce
Rating: ** 
Common along waterways in the Moggill Creek catchment 

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